6:15 AM




Process the Database Device

Collect the requirement user / business, Develop the E-R Model pursuant to requirement user business and Convert the E-R Model to relationship gathering ( tables of) of relationship Normalization to eliminate the anomali Implementation to database by making table to each;every relationship normalization.

First Normal Form (1NF)
First normal form (1NF) sets the very basic rules for an organized database. A normal form used in database normalization. A relational database table that adheres to 1NF is one that meets a certain minimum set of criteria. These criteria are basically concerned with ensuring that the table is a faithful representation of a relation and that it is free of repeating groups.Form above is a form of Normaslisasi 1NF. These fields obtained from the above attributes in the entity except KONTROLPEG field. Field is obtained from the relation of 1:1 entity employees and employees of entities to entities PART. Where a lot of employees to control personnel and an officer of the only controlled by an officer of the course. An employee can lead the section and led by only one employee only.

Second Normal Form (2NF)

Second normal form (2NF) further addresses the concept of removing duplicative data:
- Meet all the requirements of the first normal form,Remove subsets of data that apply to multiple rows of a table and place them in separate tables,Create relationships between these new tables and their predecessors through the use of foreign key( a field in a relational table that matches the primary key column of another table. The foreign key can be used to cross-reference tables) .

Third Normal Form (3NF)

Third normal form (3NF) goes one large step further:
- Meet all the requirements of the second normal form.
- Remove columns that are not dependent upon the primary key.

10:32 PM



- Collect needs for user/business and expand E-R model based on user business needs.
- Conversion of E-R model to collection relations.
- Normalization of relations for dissapear anomaly
- implementation the database in create table for user relation to normalize.

Normalization of Data Bases

- Normalization is process structure database form so that more of ambiguity can be disappeared.
- the step of normalization begun from easy step (INF) to hard step (5NF).
- It is usually until 3NF step or BCNF because it's provide enough for result good quality table.

Why normalization must be done?
- Optimalization the table structures
- Increase the speed
- Disappear input data that similar
- More efficient to use in storage media
- Decrease redundancy
- Avoid anomally (insertion anomalies, deletion anomalies, update anomalies).
- Increase the data integrity

Normalization done by because to Optimalisasi Structure of is tables, Improving speed, Eliminating same data inclusion, More efficient in storage media use, Lessening redundans, Avoiding anomali ( insertion anomalies, deletion anomalies, update the anomalies) and improved Data integrity.
A table can be said good ( efficient) or normal if fill in 3 criteria :
- If there is decompotition table, so its decompotition must secure (Lossless-Join Decomposition). It mean after decompotition become a new tables, the new tables result first similar table.
- Preserve the functional dependency when changing data(Dependency Preservation.
- not brake Boyce-Code Normal Form (BCNF)
- If the third criteria can be filled so the table not brake 3rd normal form/ 3NF.

Functional Dependency

Functional Dependency decribe attributes relationship in a relation
A attribute can be said FD if we use atribute value for determine other atribut value.
the simbol for represent FD is -->

Notation A ? B
A & B are arttribute from a table, it mean that functionally. A determine B or B hang up A, if only a 2 row data with A same value,so B same value too.

Notation A /-> B Or A x-> B

Are opposite from previously notation.


* Functional Dependency:
- NRP -> Name
- Subject_study,NRP -> VALUE

* Non Functional Dependency:
- Subject_study -> NRP

Functional Dependency From value table
- NRP -> Name
Because for each same nrp value,so name value same too
- {Subject_study, NRP} -> Value
Because attribute value depend on subject_study and NRP togethe. In other mean for same subject_study and NRP, so the value same too, because subject_study and NRP are the key (unique).
- Subject_study -> NRP
- NRP -> value

First Normal Form - 1NF

A Table can be said in first normal form if it out in unnormalized table form, where doubling same field and enable null field

can be allowed to:
- Attribute that have more value.
- Both Combination attribute.

- Domain value is atomic value

Second Normal Form - 2NF

- Normal form-2NF filled in a table if fill in 1NF form, and all atribute except primary key entirely have Functional Dependency in primary key.
- A table is not fill in 2NF, if there is attribute that Functional Dependency only partial ( only depend on half from primary key) .
- If there is attribute that not have dependency to primary key , so the attribute must be disappeare.
- Functional dependency X-> Y said full if deleting an attribute A from X mean Y not depending functional again.
- Functional Dependency X -> Y said partial if deleting an attribute A from X mean Y still depending functional.
- scheme R relation in 2NF form if each attribute non primary key A -> R depend functionally to primary key R.

Not fill in Second Normal Form - 2NF, because NIM, MKcode as a primary key
{NIM, KodeMk} → NameStudent
{NIM, KodeMk} → Address
{NIM, KodeMk} → Subjectstudy
{NIM, KodeMk} → Sks
{NIM, KodeMk} → LetterValue

Functional dependency :
{NIM, KodeMk} -> LetterValue (fd1)
NIM -> {NamaMhs, Address} (fd2)
KodeMk ? {Subjectstudy, Sks} (fd3)
becoming :

fd1 (NIM, KodeMk, LetterValue) → Tables Value
fd2 (NIM, NameMhs, Address) → Tables of student
fd3 (KodeMk, Matakuliah, Sks) → Tables Subjectstudy

Third Normal Form - 3NF

Normal form-3NF filled if fullfill in 2NF-form, and if there is not non primary key attribute that have dependency in other non primary key attribute (transitive dependency)
Because still have non PK attribute (that is city and regency) that have dependency to other non primary key attribute( postcode)
So that the tables require to discomosition become.:
Student (NIM, NameMhs, Jalan, KodePos)
KodePos (KodePos, Provinsi)

Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BNCF)

Boyce-Codd Normal Form constraint has a stronger form of the Normal third. To be BNCF, relations must be in the form of Normal first and forced each of the attributes depends on the function in the super key attributes. In the example below there is a relationship seminar, is the Primary Key NPM + Seminar.

Students may take one or two seminars. Each seminar requires 2 leader and each of the students be taught by one of the 2 leader in seminar. Each leader can only take one seminar course. In this example NPM and Seminar show a Seminar leader.

Fifth and Fourth normal form

- Relations in fourth normal form (NF 4) if the relation in BCNF and dependency not contain many values. To remove the dependency of many values from a relation, we divide the relationship into two new relations. Each relation contains two attributes that have a lot of relationship value.

- Relations in fifth normal form (5NF) deal with the property called the join without any loss of information (lossless join). Fifth normal form (also called the 5 NF PJNF (projection join normal form). The case is very rare appear and difficult to detect instantly.

12:50 AM

Quiz 6



- A set of file data in magnetic disk, optical disk or other secondary storage.
- Collection of integrated data-related data of an enterprise (company,government or private).
for example:
Company data = manufacturing production planning, actual production data, data ordering materials, etc.
Hospital = patient data, doctor, nurse, etc.

-colection of database with the application software being based on database.
- program aplication is use to acess and protec database.
-the purpose of DBMs is prepare easy and efficiency to use data storage and information.


- Bit is small part of data that contains the value 0 or 1
- Byte is a set of bits similar
- Field is a set of byte-byte similar, in the database is called attribute.

- Is a characteristic from an entity that provides detail explanation about these entity.
- A relationship have atributes,
for example : student :student number,name,address
Car :nomor_plat,colour,type,cc

1. Single vs multivalue

- Single
-> Single can be filled only one value.
- Multivalue
-> Can be filled with more than one value with the similar.

2. Atomic vs composition
- Atomic
-> Atomic can’t divided into smaller atribute.
- Composite
-> Is a composite from some smaller etribute.

3.Derived Attribute
- the atribute that value can be derived from other atribute value, for example age that derived from the atibute date of birth.

4.Null Value Attribute
- Atribut is not value to a record.

5.Mandatory Value Attribute
- Attributes must have values.

Is a line of data in a relationship
Consists of a set atributes where the atributes make a relation to informing entity or relation completely

- File is collection from similar records and have same element, same atribute but different dat values

Type of file
- In the process of application, file can categories are:
1. Master File
2. Transaction File
3. File Report
4. File History
5. File Protection
6. File Work


- Domain is a set of values that allowed into one or more atribute. Each atribute in one relational database is defined as a domain.


- Key is elements of record that used to find record in access time or used to identify each entityor record or line


- Super Key
Superkey is one or more atribute from a table that can be used to identify entity or record from the table uniquely (not all of atribute become superkey)

- Candidate Key
Is superkey with minimal atribute. Candidate Key can not fill atribute from other table so that Candidate Key exactly Super Key

- Primary Key
One of the other atribute from Candidate Keycan be found as a PK with three categories are:
- Key is more natural to use as reference
- Key is more simple
- Key is guaranteed unique

- Alternate Key
Alternate Key is atribute from Candidate Key that not choosen as Primary Key

- Foreign Key
Foreign Key is any atribute that point to PK in other table. Foreign Key will be happened in a relation that have cardinality one to many or many to many. Foreign Key always located in table that aim to many.

- External Key
External key is a lexical atribute ( set lexical atribute) that its values always idetify one intance object.


- ERD is model of function network that use word order that saved in abstract system.
- Differences between DFD and ERD
> DFD is model function network that will be done by system
> ERD is model data network that emphasize in structure and data relationship


- Entity
> In ER D E is described in rectangle. Entity is something in the real system and in abstract where the data stored.

- Relationship
> In ER D relationship can be described with belah ketupat. R is natural relation that happened between entity. Generally, the name is given to the verb base making easier to read the relations

- Relationship Degree
> Is number of entity that partisipate in one relationship. Degree that is often used in ERD.

- Attribute
> Is characteristic from each entity and relationship.

- Kardinalitas
> Indicate the number maximal tupel that relate to other entity.


->>>Unary Relationship
Model relationship between entity come from same model relationship entity set.

->>>Binary Relationship
Model relationship between 2 entities.

->>>Ternary Relationship
Is relationship between instance from 3 type entities unilateraly.


There are 3 kardinalitas relations, namely;
- One to one
-> Level one to one relationship with the one stated in the entity's first event, only had one relationship with one incident in which the two entities and vice versa.
- one to many or many to one
->Level one to many or many to one relationship is the same as the one to many depending on the direction from which the relationship is viewed. For one incident in the first entity can have many relationships with the incident on the second entity, if the one incident in which two entities can have only one incident hubugan with the first entity.
- many to many
-> Level many to many if each event in entity have more relationship with other entity event



Symbolic notation in the ER diagram is:
- Rectangle represent the collective entity
- Circle represent the attributes
- Rhomb represent collective relationships
- Line as the set of relations between the Association and the

5:26 AM



Data Flow Diagram

- Describing the distribution of system into small module is called data flow diagram(dfd)
- Make user easy to use which less understanding about computer and the system which will be done.

Contect Diagram

- Are a highest level from DFD which describe all of the scope of a system. This system is bounded by the boundary.
- Don’t have storage the data.

Zero Diagram

- Describe the process of DFD and support the all of opinion about the system that is handled, also need to storage data.
- For the process that not have more detail in next level so it must be added a symbol ‘*’ or ‘P’ in the end of number process
- Balancing of input and output between zero diagram and conteks diagram must be maintained

Detail Diagram

- Is the diagram that tell about the process what is there in zero diagram or the upper level
Numbering level in the DFD:

- In one level doesn’t have more than 7 process or the maximal is 9, if more than it so it need to dekomposition.

Specification Process

- In each process of DFD must have spesificasi process
- In top level method that used to describe a process, can use descriptif sentence
- In detail level that is in functional primitive need more structured spesificasi
- Spesificasi process will become orientation for the programmer to make coding
- The method that used in spesificasi process : the script of the process in a story, decision,decision tree.

External Entity

- Something that is in outside of system, but they give the data into system or give data from the system
- it is signed by notation box
- External entity is not part of system

- Name of terminal is noun

- The terminal is not have the same name exception in the same object

Data flow

- Is the palce of information flows
- Described by straight line that relate the component from the system.
- The flows data is signed by arrow and the line is given name the flows data that flow.

orientation prewsent name:

- The name data flow not be are same name and present name have agree with contents.
- Data Flow consists of some element can description are group element.
- Avoid to use a word like “data” and “information” for naming the data flow. And the name of data flow is written in complete name.

Certainty other:

- The name data flow that input in to a process not be same with the name data flow that output from process- Data
- Data flow that input or output from data storage not be need give name if:

- the data flow is simple and easy to understand
- the data flow describe all data item

- No be need data flow from terminal to data storage Because terminal is not part from the system, the terminal relation with data storage have to pass the process


- Process is what is worked by the system and it can manage the data or input data flow become output data flow.
- The function of process is transforms one or some input data become one or some output data with wanted specification .
- Each process have one or some input and produce one or some output.
- The process is also called bubble

The orientation naming process :

- Name of the process consists of verbs and nouns a that look up process function
- Don’t use “ process” as part of name a bubble.
- There is not same name in some process.
- The process given number : The structure of number must follow the flow proces, however it doesn’t mean absolutely and chronological structure process.

Data Storage

- Is a place to storage data in the system. The symbol is pararel line or two lines with one side is opened.
- Proces can take data from or given data to database
- The Orientation to give a name :
- The name must look like data storage.
- If name more than one word then must give continue sign.

Data Dictionary

- This function help user system for interpret aplication in detail and organize all elemen data are used in system exactly so that user and analysis system have same base understanding about input,output,storage and process.
- In analysis step, dictionary data is used as communication device between analyze system and user
- The data flow in DAD have global characterisic, more detail information can look in data dictionary


- Data flow that input and output from one process must same with detail data flow that in and out from under the level
- The name of data flow that input and output from a process must same with the name data flow process.
- Total and name external entitas from a proces have same with total and external entitas name from detail process.

The issues that must be considered in the DFD which have more than one level:

- There must be a balance between input and output of one level and next level

- Balance between level 0 and level 1 at input output of the flow of data to or from the terminal on level 0, while the balance between level 1 and level 2 is seen on the input / output of stream data to and from the process concerned

- Name of the flow of data, data storage and terminals at each level must be the same if the same object

Restrictions In DFD

- Data flow not from direct external entitas go on other external entitas without by a process.
- Data flow not from direct data storage go on external entitas without a process.
- Data flow not from direct data storage go on to other storage entitas without a proces
- Data flow from one direct process go on other process without a data storage or avoid it.

12:12 AM




The gap between system purposes and the condition actual system.
The report of detection problem is not real or actual.

a. A purposes that too ideal.
b. less of resources and attitude.
c. less acurate is measuremen system.
d. the purposes system that is out of date.
e. difference between idel system and temporary system.

Problem solving:

a. An Acurate the inverstigation.
b. Ideal Getting of system consensus.
c. Developed several alternative.
d. Select the best alternative.

Purpose of investigation indicate problem are happen in the system.


Problem are often appear in system investigation:
- Time
- Cost
- Knowledge
- Politic
- Intervention


Why need tactics ?
- Find all the problem.

- Knowing cause of problem.

- Determine correct solution.

several tactics which can be conducted:

- heard opinion from system subject.

- Consideration some opinion from system agent about the same problem.

- Paying notice to problem of inkonsistensi logical.


Technique directly (Internal):

- The questionnaire

- Discussion

- Monitoring

Technique Indirectly (External):

- Flow of the procedure

- Reviewing documents

- Sample

- Tabular

Current system Description

- Inputs

- Outputs

- Files

- Data elements

- Transaction and document action volume

- Data Flow Diagram


Intensive Interaction stage between system analyst by end is user of where team of system development indicate for get faith user.

4 Purpose which wish reached

- Explaining the system completely.
- Describing ideal the information system.
- Giving provide about make the user trusting into system development
- Bringing ideal information system to condition in this time by paying attention to resource constraint


- Discussion
- Questionnaire
- Observation
- Analyse procedure
- Document Observe

Resource constaraint
- Time
- Money
- Membership
- Technological
- Eksternal Factor

The Requirement Document Analyse

1. Instruction analyse
Relationships with end users, the observation process, problems in data collection.

2. The user needs
The need actual, reporting requirements, training needs and the influence of the new system

3. System Constraint
Explain the constraints of time and cost, expertise, membership, technological and factor eksternal
4. Document in the form of data collecting instrument, statistical consensus, the logical flow of data phisical.


How method near condition of the current system with the condition of the ideal system?

- Creating an alternative for analyze the problem of information system

1. Best alternative is applied wise.

- Options Strategies

1. Distributed versus centralized processing
Change in centralized data processing to decentralized end user responsibility center

2. Integrated versus dispersed database.

3. Surround Strategy of System Development

- Options Tactics
Before behavior to design operational

- Designing Operational Options
Selection in design operational can be group:

a. Input
1. Online Vs Off Line Data Entry
2. Keyed Vs Machine Readable Data Entry
3. Centralized Vs Decentralized Data Entry
b. Processing
1. Batch Vs Realtime record update
2. Sequential Vs Direct Access to records
3. Single Vs Multiple User update of records
c. Output
1. Traditional Vs Turn Around Documents
2. Structured Vs Inquiry based reports


There are 3 method the system "A" said the system more superior with other system if :

a. A has a cost lower than B and their profit equal.
b. A has a cost lower than B and A result in more profits from the B
c. A and B have the same costs but the result benefit A more.

Several Method of Compare System

- Break Even point Analyisis
- Payback Period
- Discounted Payback period
- Internal of Rate Of Return

Categories Cost :
- Hardware.
- Software.
- People.
- Suppliers.
- Telecommunications.
- Physical sites

Categories details

Comparing the cost of information systems through the life of the system, projection analyst of how many expense change for the future and there is 3 model of expense of information system that is Linear, Eksponencial And Step Function

Information system cost happen in one time and be able happen continuous.

- Cost of just information system that happened once that is ontime cost and development cost that happened system development moment .

- Cost of information system that happened continually among other things is reccuring cost and also operational cost of where this expense is happened by the moment of information system operate every day.

The Information System Factor

Qualitative factors that lead the performance information system that both of them:

a. Reducing mistake storey
b. Reducing the time to fix errors
c. Reduce the response time from the workstation alternative
d. Accelerate the time of providing information
e. Improve security systems
f. Multiply to update the active source record
g. Improving user satisfaction

Company Strategy Factor

a. Customer satisfaction
b. Sales increased
c. Consumer and vendor commitment
d. Product marketing Information

Representation Learning System

- Make short in time presentations
- Reduce the technique clarification in detail
- Presenting clearly by means of assist visual
- If using a model using a tool such as a laptop so that more informative
- Emphasize the advatage of the proposed system with some alternative information that is appropriate conditions experienced by the company.

Decision to continue or No

- If the company decide to developing the system so information department will go to next process that is design system process.
- If contrast from above so System development Life Cycle will be stopped.
- Often the problem will be found in study system and the top management ask to re-working to study system.
- Model will explain some part of stage which is repeated and sometimes information department will make a decision before explain the system study.
- With the alternative, the decision to repeat SLDC stage before or not called Go - No-Go Decision.

12:16 AM

The Importance Of Developing An Information System

The Importance Of Developing An Information System

1. Problems existence
the old system problems can not operating as we expected.

2. Organization Growth
organitation growth cause the new system must be arranged to inform that more increasing information.

3. For reach the opportunities
the development of information cause increasing the supply of information with the result can help to decide that done by management.

4. Instructions existence (directives)
the existence instructions from the leader or the outside of organitation, as the government regulation.
for example : employee minimum wages

The Purpose Or Goal Of Developing An Information System

1. Solving the problems that happen in case.

2. Reach the opportunities

3. Complete the directives that given

The Organization’s Expectations After Implementing An Information System

1. Performance
increasing the work of the new system so that it more effective.

2. Information
Increase the quality of information.

3. Economy
Increase the profit and decrease the cost.

4. Control
The Purpose of control is detect and fix the mistakes or error.
exemple : application barcode inside comodity in mini market

5. Efficiency
The organization must to increase the efficiency of operational.

6. Services
Increase the services of system.

The Principles Of Developing An Information System

1. Developed system for the management.
The system is finished develop, so the system must support its necessary by management.

2. Developed system is a big investment
Developing system need much money and modern technologi.

3. The development of system needs educated people.
Human is determine success or fail a certain system.

4. There is a step or process that must be done in system development.
Process developing system is teamwork.

5. System development process must not massage.

6. Don't be afraid to cancel a project.
cancel the project have to accurate opinion.

7. Documentation is important for guidance in system development

System Development Life Cycle Models

a. Model of waterfall explanation :

- Requirement
- Design
- Implementation
- Verification
- Maintenance

b. Model iteratif explanation :

- Initial planning
- Planning,
- Requirement
- Analysis and design
- Implementation
- Deployment
- Testing
- Evaluation

c. Model spiral explanation :

- Determine objectives
- Identify and resolve risk
- Development and test
- Plan the next iteration

Approaches Of Developing A System

1. Classical approach and structured approach ( looked into used methodologies).

a. Classical Approach
Is classic approach methodologies to develop the system by following the step in system life cycle.

b. Structured Approach
User involvement from the beginning to determine the needs of the system

2. Piecemeal approach and system approach (looked into the target to reach).

a. Piecemental Approach
A development of system that tell about only an activities.

b. System Approach
A development of system that attention to all activities in unity form.

3. Bottom-up approach and Top-down approach (looked into the way of determining requirement of system).

a. Bottom-Up Approach
A bottom-up approach is piecing together systems to give rise to grander systems, thus making the original systems sub-systems of the emergent system. In a bottom-up approach the individual base elements of the system are first specified in great detail. These elements are then linked together to form larger subsystems, which then in turn are linked, sometimes in many levels, until a complete top-level system is formed. This strategy often resembles a "seed" model, whereby the beginnings are small but eventually grow in complexity and completeness. However, "organic strategies" may result in a tangle of elements and subsystems, developed in isolation and subject to local optimization as opposed to meeting a global purpose.

b. Top-Down Approach
A top-down approach is essentially breaking down a system to gain insight into its compositional sub-systems. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is first formulated, specifying but not detailing any first-level subsystems. Each subsystem is then refined in yet greater detail, sometimes in many additional subsystem levels, until the entire specification is reduced to base elements. A top-down model is often specified with the assistance of "black boxes" that make it easier to manipulate. However, black boxes may fail to elucidate elementary mechanisms or be detailed enough to realistically validate the model.

4. Total-system approach and modular approach (looked into the way of developing it).

a. Total System Approach
The approach that developed sistem simultaneously.

b. Modular Approach
Solving problem that complicated become simple module.

5. Great loop approach and evolutionary approach (looked into technology to be used).

a. Great Loop Approach
The approach that comprehensive use good technologi because development of technologi cause appear risk.

b. Evolutionary Approach
The application of technologi only for needed applications and can follow the fast development of technologi.

The Meaning Of Methodology, Method And Algorithm

A.Methodology can be defined as:
The unity of methods, procedures, the regulations that is used in science for developing the information system.

B. Method
A way to do something.

C. Algorithm
Algorithm is a sequence of finite instructions, often used for calculation and data processing.

Classifications Of Development Methodology

1. Functional decomposition methodologies
Emphasizing resolving of system becomes subsystem.

- HIPO (Hierarchy plus Input Process Output)
- SR (Stepwise Refinement)
- ISR (Iterative Stepwise Refinement)
- Information-Hiding

2. Data-oriented methodologies

This methodologies is grouped into 2 class:

A. Data-flow oriented methodologies
- SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Techniques)
- Composite Design
- Structured System analysis and design.
B. Data structure oriented methodologies
- JSD (Jakson's system development)
- W/O (Warnier/ Orr)

3. Prescriptive Methodologies
In this methodology including:
- ISDOS (Information System Design and Optimization System)
- SDM/70
- SRES and SREM, etc.

Tools For Developing A System

The tools there are in the form of diagram and chart, such as :
- HIPO diagram.
- Data flow diagram.
- SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Techniques)
- structured chart.
- Jackson's diagrams.

Besides the tools that mention above, there are utilizes that used at all of methodology. The tools as a chart set that grouped by:

- Activity charting: to figuring activity.
example: - chart's substituting.
- flowchart.

Layout charting:to figuring layout.

- Personal relationship charting: to figuring person relationship,
example: - organization chart.
- working distribution chart

Techniques Used In Developing A System

1. Technique Management project
For schedule a project
Example: CPM (Critical Path Method) and PERT (Program Evaluation And Review Technique)

2. Technique find fact
to collect data and determine and find the facts
– interview
– Observation

3. Technique cost analysis

4. Technique run meeting

5. walkthrough

The Differences Of Being A System Analyst And A Programmer.

1. System Analyst
A systems analyst is responsible for researching, planning, coordinating and recommending software and system choices to meet an organization's business requirements. The systems analyst plays a vital role in the systems development process. A successful systems analyst must acquire four skills: analytical, technical, managerial, and interpersonal.

2. Programmer
A Person who make a software in computer and understand about technologi of computer.

1:15 AM


The basic concept of System

There are two approach to define system that:
                   a. procedure
                   b. component


System is a certain group of component which have another interaction for execute the job or activity to reached the purpose.
system ---> Reaching a purpose (goal)
              ---> Reaching a target (objective)


= Components of system
           Component which interacted for cooperation to form unity.
           Supra system.
= Boundary of system
           Bounds of System defines difference between the environment and the system.
= External environmets of system
           Whatever the external of system’s limit that effect the system’s operation. The external             environment of system can be benefit or loss that system.
= Interface
           The interface between one sub system with the other of sub system.
= Input
           Is an energy which entered into the system, such as signal input and treatment input.
= Output
           The result from energy which have been processed and classified become output,which             have benefit from rest of dismissal.
            To change input become output.
=Target (objective) / goal
            If the system do not have a purpose, so the operation system not useful. The system             have  been told to succeed if have reached goal or purpose.

The basic concept of Information

Information is group of data which is processed and then the result of the processed become more useful information form. Data also describe the events and become a factual united.

Quality Of Information

      The information must be free from mistakes and do not have meaning which misleading and        confusing for user.
On time
       The information which coming to receiver must be on time or efficient of time and the data        must be update.
       The information must have benefit for everyone, it's means that data have meaningful and        also useful which using the information.

Information System
       Informaston system is a system that related a daily transaction which collect, process, store        and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.